References

Human health
  • Baldwin R. M., Jewell W. T., Fanucchi M. V., Plopper C. G., and Buckpitt A. R. (2004) Comparison of Pulmonary/Nasal CYP2F Expression Levels in Rodents and Rhesus Macaque.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 309:127-136.
  • Boland B., Lin C. Y., Morin D., Miller L., Plopper C.G., Buckpitt A. (2004) Site specific metabolism of naphthalene and 1-nitronaphthalene in dissected airways of rhesus macaques.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2004, 310: 546-554.
  • Buckpitt, A., Buonarati, M., Avey, L. B., Chang, A. M., Morin, D., and Plopper, C. G. (1992) Relationship of cyctochrome P450 activity and Clara cell cytotoxicity.  II. Comparison of stereoselectivity of naphthalene epoxidation in lung and nasal mucosa of mouse, hamster, rat and rhesus monkey.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 261:354-372.
  • Cruzan G, Bus J, Banton M et al. (2009). Mouse specific lung tumors from CYP2F2-mediated cytotoxic metabolism: an endpoint/toxic response where data from multiple chemicals converge to support a mode of action. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 55: 205–218.
  • European Chemicals Bureau (2003) European Union Risk Assessment Report, Naphthalene, Volume 33
  • IARC (2002) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Some Traditional Herbal Medicines, Some Mycotoxins, Naphthalene and Styrene, Volume 82
  • Lanza, D.L., Code, E., Crespi, C.L., Gonzalez, F.J. & Yost, G.S. (1999) Specific dehydrogenation of 3-methylindole and epoxidation of naphthalene by recombinant human CYP2F1 expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. Drug Metab. Disp., 27, 798–803
  • National Toxicology Program (1992) Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Naphthalene in B6C3F1 Mice, NTP TR 410
  • National Toxicology Program (2000) Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Naphthalene in F344/N Rats, NTP TR 500
  • Shultz, M.A., Choudary, P.V. & Buckpitt, A.R. (1999) Role of murine cytochrome P-450 2F2 in metabolic activation of naphthalene and metabolism of other xenobiotics. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther., 290, 281–288
  • The Responsible Care® initiative of the chemical industry. click here
  • The Responsible Care Global Charter, adopted in 2006 at the UN-led International Conference on Chemicals Management, is the chemical industry’s unique global initiative that drives continuous improvement in health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance, together with open and transparent communication with stakeholders.
Physical hazards
  • E. Brandes/W. Möller, Safety Characteristics Data, Vol 1, Section 1
  • Marine Accident Investigators’ International Forum (MAIIF) – Fire Manual (Draf), Chapter 1 - Chemistry and Physics of Fire
  • W.A. Affens, Flammability Properties of Hydrocarbon Fuels-J of Chemical and Engineering Data, Vol 11, N°2, April 1966
  • Fire and Explosion Hazards Handbook of Industrial Chemicals, T.A. Davletshina, N.P. Chomerisinoff, Noyes Publications 1998
  • UK Health on Safety Executive (HSE) Guidance Note C524, The interpretation on use of Flash point information
  • European Solvent Industry Group (ESIG) Best Practice guidelines N° 4, Safe working with Industrial Solvents, Flammability: a safety guide for users        
  • H.L. Walmsley, Journal of Electrostatics. The avoidance of electrostatic hazards in the Petroleum Industry
  • American Society for Testing on Materials (ASTM) D 56 – Flash Point by means of the Tag Closed Tester
  • ASTM D 93 – Flash Point by means of the Pensky-Martens Closed Tester
  • ASTM E 659 – Auto Ignition Temperature
  • ExxonMobil Chemical – User’s guide to Safety Data Sheets    
  • W. Bartknecht, “Explosions” Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1981
  • M.G. Zabetakis, bulletin 627, Bureau of Mines publication        
  • H.L. Walmsley, Journal of Electrostatics. The avoidance of electrostatic hazards in the Petroleum Industry
Environment
  • Andrea M, Rosenfeld D. 2008. Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols. Earth-Science Reviews 89(1): 13-41.
  • Carter, W.P.L.  1994.  Development of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds.  J. Air Waste Management Association. 44:881-899.
  • Carter WPL. 2010. Updated maximum incremental reactivity scale and hydrocarbon bin reactivities for regulatory applications. Prepared for California Air Resources Board Contract: 07-339.
  • Derwent, R.G., M.E. Jenkin, N.R. Passant, M.J. Pilling. 2007.  Reactivity-based strategies for photochemical ozone control in Europe.  Environmental Science and Policy
  • Derwent , R.G., M.E. Jenkin, S. M. Saunders, M.J. Pilling.  2001.  Characterization of the reactivities of volatile organic compounds using a master chemical mechanism. J. Air and Waste Management Association 51:699-707.
  • DEFRA – Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, United Kingdom. 2007.  Air Quality and Climate Change: A UK Perspective.  
  • EMEP, atmospheric emission of anthropogenic VOCs in EU27, 2009 data. Available here.
  • Goldstein, A.H., C. D. Koven, C.L. Heald and I.Y. Fung. 2009.  Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the southeastern United States.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(22): 8835-8840.
  • Heald C, Henze D, Horowitz L, Feddema J, Lamarque JF, Guenther A, et al. 2008. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D5): D05211.
  • Henze D, Seinfeld J, Ng N, Kroll J, Fu TM, Jacob D, et al. 2008. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high-vs. low-yield pathways. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(9): 2405-2421.
  • Hoyle, C.R., G. Myhre, T.K. Berntsen and I.S.A. Isaksen.  2009.  Anthropogenic influence on SOA and the resulting radiative forcing.  Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9: 2715-2728,
  • Kwok, E. S. C., C. Takemoto and A. Chew (2000): “Methods for Estimating Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) of Hydrocarbon Solvents and their Classification,” Appendix C to “Initial Statement of Reasons for the Proposed Amendments to the Regulation for Reducing Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Aerosol Coating Products and Proposed Tables of Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) Values, and Proposed Amendments to Method 310, ‘Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Consumer Products’,” California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA, May 5.
  • Monks P, Granier C, Fuzzi S, Stohl A, Williams M, Akimoto H, et al. 2009. Atmospheric composition change–global and regional air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43(33): 5268-5350.
  • Piccot SD, Watson JJ, Jones JW. 1992. A global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(D9): 9897-9912.
  • Simpson, D. et al., 1999.  Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe.  J Geophysical Research 104 (D&): 8113-8152,
  • Steiner, A. et al.  2002.  Past and present-day biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in East Asia.  Atmospheric Environment 36: 4895 – 4905.
  • Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, 2011.  State Implementation Platn (SIP) for Houston-Galveston-Brazoria. More info.
  • Tsigaridis K, Kanakidou M. 2007. Secondary organic aerosol importance in the future atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 41(22): 4682-4692.
  • Petrorisk: ECHA (2008a) Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.7c: Endpoint specific guidance, Appendix R.7.13-1 Technical Guidance for Environmental Risk Assessment For Petroleum Substances, pp. 220-226.

Air quality

VOCs and indoor air quality:

  • WHO. WHO Indoor Air Quality Guidelines. 2013  [cited 2013; Available here]
  • US EPA. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Indoor Air Pollution and Health. 2012  [cited 2013; Available here]
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. [Healthy Housing Reference Manual 2006  Chapter 5: Indoor Air Pollutants and Toxic Materials; Available here]
  • European Comission Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks. Indoor Air Quality: What are the main factors in indoor air quality? 2008  [cited 2013; Available here]
  • US EPA. Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners. 2013  [cited 2013; Available here]
  • Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification. Water Damage. 2013; Available here]
  • ASHRAE. 10 Tips for Home Indoor Air Quality. 2010  [cited 2013; Available here]
  • European Solvent VOC Coordination Group (ESVOC CG): paper on “VOCs and indoor air quality” [December 2013; Available here]

VOCs and outdoor air quality:

  • Andrea M, Rosenfeld D. 2008. Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols. Earth-Science Reviews 89(1): 13-41.
  • Carter, W.P.L.  1994.  Development of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds.  J. Air Waste Management Association. 44:881-899.
    Carter WPL. 2010. Updated maximum incremental reactivity scale and hydrocarbon bin reactivities for regulatory applications. Prepared for California Air Resources Board Contract: 07-339.
  • Derwent, R.G., M.E. Jenkin, N.R. Passant, M.J. Pilling. 2007.  Reactivity-based strategies for photochemical ozone control in Europe.  Environmental Science and Policy.
  • Derwent , R.G., M.E. Jenkin, S. M. Saunders, M.J. Pilling.  2001.  Characterization of the reactivities of volatile organic compounds using a master chemical mechanism. J. Air and Waste Management Association 51:699-707.
  • DEFRA – Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, United Kingdom. 2007.  Air Quality and Climate Change: A UK Perspective. 
  • EMEP, atmospheric emission of anthropogenic VOCs in EU27, 2009 data. Available at:  http://www.ceip.at/webdab-emission-database/
  • Goldstein, A.H., C. D. Koven, C.L. Heald and I.Y. Fung. 2009.  Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the southeastern United States.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(22): 8835-8840.
  • Heald C, Henze D, Horowitz L, Feddema J, Lamarque JF, Guenther A, et al. 2008. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D5): D05211.
  • Health Effects Institute. 2013. Understanding the health effects of ambient ultrafine particles: HEI Review panel on ultrafine particles. HEI Perspectives 3. Available at www.healtheffects.org.
  • Henze D, Seinfeld J, Ng N, Kroll J, Fu TM, Jacob D, et al. 2008. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high-vs. low-yield pathways. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(9): 2405-2421.
  • Hoyle, C.R., G. Myhre, T.K. Berntsen and I.S.A. Isaksen.  2009.  Anthropogenic influence on SOA and the resulting radiative forcing.  Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9: 2715-2728.
  • Kwok, E. S. C., C. Takemoto and A. Chew (2000): “Methods for Estimating Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) of Hydrocarbon Solvents and their Classification,” Appendix C to “Initial Statement of Reasons for the Proposed Amendments to the Regulation for Reducing Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Aerosol Coating Products and Proposed Tables of Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) Values, and Proposed Amendments to Method 310, ‘Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Consumer Products’,” California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA, May 5.
  • Monks P, Granier C, Fuzzi S, Stohl A, Williams M, Akimoto H, et al. 2009. Atmospheric composition change–global and regional air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43(33): 5268-5350.
  • Piccot SD, Watson JJ, Jones JW. 1992. A global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(D9): 9897-9912.
  • Simpson, D. et al., 1999.  Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe.  J Geophysical Research 104 (D&): 8113-8152.
  • Steiner, A. et al.  2002.  Past and present-day biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in East Asia.  Atmospheric Environment 36: 4895 – 4905.
  • Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, 2011.  State Implementation Platn (SIP) for Houston-Galveston-Brazoria: http://www.tceq.texas.gov/airquality/sip/HGB_eight_hour.html; Chapter 4. Control strategies and required elements: http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/assets/public/implementation/air/sip/hgb/hgb_sip_2009/09017SIP_Ch4_ado.pdf
  • Tsigaridis K, Kanakidou M. 2007. Secondary organic aerosol importance in the future atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 41(22): 4682-4692.

Safety data sheet